Module 1 Fundamentals and Reliability Methodology, Part 1
 Introduction
 Terminology: Terms and definitions
 Reliability engineering during development process
 Customer viewpoint, customer requirements, and manufacturer responsibilities
 Assessment of reliability targets
 Causes of unreliability; reliability concepts, benefits
 Context of reliability, maintainability, and safety
 Difference between design failure and physical failure
 Mathematical Aspects of Reliability Modelling
 Fundamentals of probability theory and statistics
 Application of probability functions for reliability modelling
 Exercises
 Fundamentals
 System definition, system boundaries, system analysis
 Qualitative versus quantitative approaches
 Analytical versus statistical approaches
 Inductive versus deductive approaches
 Avoidance of design failures
 Data
 Origin, structure, and quality of reliability data
 Data sources
 Evaluation of reliability data
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Data Analysis
 Order statistics and their distributions
 Graphic analysis
 Evaluation of incomplete (censored) data
 Confidence intervals
 Exercises
 Reliability Test Planning
 Test planning based on the binomial and Weibull distribution
 Lifetime ratio, failures during a test
 Accelerated lifetime tests, timeacceleration models
 Correlation between test and operation
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Introduction
 Method
 FMEA worksheet
 FMEA report
 Applications
 Relationships with other methods
 Description of the FMEA documentation
 Application examples
 Exercises (teamwork)
 Presentation of Later Modules

Module 2 Reliability Methodology, Part 2
 Boolean Modelling
 System and function analysis
 Function Block Diagram and Reliability Block Diagram (FBD and RBD)
 Serial and parallel structures
 Standby and moutofn structures
 Reliability calculation of nonrestorable systems
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
 Introduction
 Development
 Construction
 Evaluation
 Quantification
 Common cause and common mode failure
 Relations to other methods of reliability analysis
 Some notes on tools
 Description of the FTA documentation
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
 Introduction
 Development of event trees
 Evaluation
 Relationship with other reliability methods
 Common cause and common mode failure
 Description of the ETA documentation
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Derating
 Introduction
 Derating Development
 Applications 1:
switches, fuses, relays
 Applications 2:
connectors, capacitors, resistors, diodes, transistors
 Applications 3:
lamps, electrical motors, fans, circuit breakers, magnetic elements,
tubes, thermistors, crystals/quartz, electrical EMI filters,
microcircuits, hybrid microcircuits, microelectromechanical elements,
optoelectronic elements
 Exercises
 Restorable Systems
 Fundamentals of restorable systems
 Quantitative reliability analysis
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Evaluating Incomplete Data
 Approaches
 Application examples
 Exercises

Module 3 Reliability Methodology, Part 3
 Markov Modelling
 State definition and state (transition) diagram
 Formulating and solving differential equations
 Evaluation of reliability measures
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Petri nets
 Fundamentals (symbols, syntax, structure, and dynamic)
 Reachability graph and state space
 Structural properties (e. g. invariants, structural deadlock)
 Temporal extensions to Petri nets
 Modelling logical operators
 Modelling simple item connections
(serial connections; active, moutofn, and standby redundancies)
 Modelling maintenance tasks and strategies
 Petri nets of fault and success trees
 Petri nets of Markov chain/process state graphs
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Neural Networks
 Introduction and biological analogies
 Artificial neural networks
 Neural network reliability data analysis
 Predicting reliability by neural networks
 Reliability growth modelling by neural networks
 Other application areas
 Neural fuzzy reliability approaches
 Notes on genetic algorithms
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Simulations
 Mathematical fundamentals of the Monte Carlo simulation
 Evaluation of reliability data
 Application of the Monte Carlo simulation to calculate input data uncertainties in reliability analysis
 Application of the Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the reliability of (mechanical) structures
 Simulation tools
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Bayesian Approaches
 Application of Bayesian approaches to reliability demonstration
 Uniform and beta distribution as apriori information
 Description of selected approaches
 Discussion and comparison of the approaches
 Application examples
 Exercises

Module 8 Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment
 Fundamentals of Safety Analysis
 Introduction
 Description of deterministic (nonstochastic) concepts
 Safety terminology: Terms and definitions
 Safety and security
 Hazard and danger
 Fundamentals of Risk Assessment
 Introduction
 Description of stochastic concepts
 Risk terminology: Terms and definitions
 Risk and chance
 Acceptance and aversion
 Risk representations
 Risk matrix
 Risk graph
 Other risk representations
 Presentation and comparison of risk acceptance concepts
 GAMAB; GAME – Globalement Au Moins Aussi Bon; Globalement Au Moins Equivalent
 MEM – Minimum Endogenous Mortality
 ALARP – As Low As Reasonable Practicable
 Application examples
 Exercises
 IndustrialSectorSpecific Measures
 Presentation and comparison of industrial sectorspecific measures
 Safety Integrity Level (SIL) according to IEC 61508
 Design Assurance Level (DAL)
 Performance Level (PL) according to ISO 138491 compared with EN 62061
 Other measures
 Assigning SILs, DALs, PLs
 Summary
 Preliminary/Potential Hazard Analysis (PHA)
 Introduction
 Relations between the PHA and the Hazard List
 Worksheet structure
 Conducting a PHA
 Hazard Log
 Variants of PHA
 Operating Hazard Analysis (OHA)
 Maintenance Hazard Analysis
 Other variants
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
 Introduction
 Risk and risk priority number
 Relationship between FMECA and other methods of risk assessment
 Failure rate, probability, and criticality number estimation
 Report of FMECA
 Applications
 Use of FMECA
 Application within a project
 Limitations and deficiencies of FMECA
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Other Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Methods
 Discussion of the methods described in Modules 1 to 3
 Methods for installation and process safety
 Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
 Whatif method
 Zurich Hazard Analysis (ZHA)
 Other methods
 Collections of safety engineering methods
 R.A. Stephens & W. Talso (System Safety Society)
 FAA System Safety Handbook (Federal Aviation Administration)
 SAE ARP 4761
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Probabilistic Safety Analysis resp. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA/PRA)
 Introduction
 When to use PSA/PRA
 Documenting decisions
 Implementation of responsibility
 PSA/PRA process
 Definition of objective(s)
 System familiarisation
 Identification of initiating events
 Scenario modelling
 Failure modelling
 Quantification
 Uncertainty analysis
 Sensitivity analysis
 Ranking
 Data analysis
 PSA/PRA development requirements
 Team
 Implementation
 Quality
 Independent peer review
 PSA/PRA as a living tool
 Differences between PSA and PRA
 Application examples
 Exercises
 Safety Plan and Safety Case
 Preparing a safety plan
 Purpose of a safety case
 Safety case scope
 Safety case levels
 Safety case phases
 Safety case structure
 Safety assessment
 Interfaces with existing systems
 Operationproved systems
 Unproved systems
 Application examples
